Alexander: The Epic Conquests and Legacy of Alexander the Great

One of the most famous military commanders in history, Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) ruled a vast empire stretching from Greece to the Indus River in Pakistan. Alexander was born Alexander III of Macedon in 356 BC in Pella, the eco-friendly capital of Macedonia, and his conquests changed the world of the ancient world, bringing together cultures and laying the foundations of the Hellenistic period. HIs unprecedented series of victories is not just the story of a military mastermind however, but a story of amb0ition, leadership, and imagination.

Early Life and Rise To Power

The son of King Philip II of Macedon and Queen Olympias, Alexander He was molded for leadership from young. Under the guidance of the philosopher Aristotle, he gained knowledge of philosophy, science, medicine, and literature, which at that time helped to educate a new leader, in harmony with his education in the military. Already a formidable leader by the time he was 16 or so, yowestogel Alexander stood in as regent of Macedonia while his father Alexander campaigned elsewhere.

He became king in 336 BC after Philip II was assassinated and was just 20 years old at the time. Thebeginning of his reign had been characterized by the strengthening his position, as he soon as possible suppressed internal disturbances and secured obedience from the Macedonian army. His aspiration for greatness in equal measure to his father and his perceived divine calling to create a large empire led Alexander to embark on arguably the most astonishing military conquests in the annals of history.

The ancient ruins of Persepolis, symbolizing Alexander's conquest of the Persian Empire.

The Conquest of Persia

At 20, Alexander launched his first major military campaign against the Achaemenid Persian Empire, the premier world power of the time. He took an army of c. 30,000 infantry and 4,500 cavalry across the Hellespont (modern Dardanelles) in 334 BC. After his first victory in the Battle of Granicus, the way to Asia Minor was clear. Alexander met Persian King Darius III in the Battle of Issus in 333 BC. Outnumbered 4:1, However, Alexander’s tactics led to a tactical victory.

Leveraging the terrain, he charged forward and struck at the heart of the Persian lines with a preemptive cavalry charge. That done, Darius abandoned both battlefield and home, his family captured by Alexander and unable to return to her home but treated well by her captor. Alexander also seized Tyre and Gaza in 332 BC, victories that further evinced his military prowess.

Of a more serious nature was the taking of Tyre, located on an island and surrounded by strong walls. After a siege of seven months, Alexander used his ingenuity to work round the problem with the river by building causeways and siege engines, and the last fugitives within the city walls finally surrendered. These included the easy procedure of common conquest of Alexander in Egypt but when you get there, the city handed its parities to him with open arms and he crowns pharoah.

The Founding of Alexandria

In 331 BC, while on his conquest of Egypt, Alexander also established the city of Alexandria, which would later become one of the greatest cultural and intellectual cities of the ancient world. Situated near the Nile Delta and in a network of productive trade routes Alexandria was a strategic communication and trade location. Envisaged as the epitome of the united empire that Alexander had dreamed of creating, the city was a synthesis of Greek and Egyptian cultures.

The Battle of Gaugamela

This brought him again against Darius III now at the Battle of Gaugamela near where modern Mosul in Iraq lies, in 331 BC. For these reasons, this battle is widely seen as Alexander’s most impressive tactical accomplishment. Despite being outnumbered, Alexander demonstrated advanced tactics, including a false retreat by his right and a direct assault by himself, which smashed through the chariots into Darius once again fleeing. The defeat at Gaugamela all but sealed the fate of the Persian Empire.

Alexander continued to the Persian cities of Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis, which he destroyed in a symbolic revenge for the Persian torching of Athens in 480 BCE.

A detailed map showing the vast expanse of Alexander the Great's empire from Greece to the Indus River.

Campaigns in Central Asia

After his conquest of Persia, Alexander turned his attention to lands outside the empire. Between 330 and 327 BCE, he fought in Central Asia, where he encountered staunch resistance from local tribes. His conquests included the capture of the Sogdian Rock, a supposedly impregnable fortress in modern-day Uzbekistan, where he mounted a dramatic night climb to catch the defenders off guard and win a decisive victory. In the same year, Alexander married Roxana, the daughter of a local Bactrian noble, in an attempt to produce an heir and further integrate the various nationalities under his rule.

These served as a basis for the policies of cultural assimilation that led to the Old Turkic inscriptions in the Orkhon Valley, to speak and write the Turkish language relatively late in history and which his Persophilia did much to strengthen, and the acceptance of Persian customs and dress which never ceased, and were introduced by Uighurs who became increasingly Persianized by Mongolian and Chinese cultural patterns.

The Indian Campaign

Alexander, in 327 BC, crossed the Hindu Kush and entered the Indian subcontinent. Being the major battles in his campaign in India he fought, the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BCE against King Porus. Although he was outnumbered by the Persian and Indian armies, including war elephants, Alexander displayed incredible tactical skills that led him to victory after a particularly difficult battle. Recognizing the Porus bravery, Alexander spared Porus and let him continue to rule his kingdom along with more land for him.

Nonetheless, the Indian campaign was the last time Alexander could push his army. Tired and returning, his soldiers mutinied proceedings the Hyphasis River (modern Beas River), voicing their unwillingness to march further east. Begrudgingly, Alexander agreed to return, his empire having reached it easternmost limits.

Return And Alexander Dies

The return trip was longer, and was marred by periods of helatious desert winds (in what is now Baluchistan) that caused a grievous loss of life by disease. Great Kushinagar War is mostly known for Teaching of Alexandria, where he successfully integrated his empire from 324 BCE onwards, he arranged mass marriages of his soldiers and local women during that time in Susa.

From here, Alexandria makes another famous move when he decides on the invasion of Arabia, and moves to Babylon planning new campaigns in 323 BCE. Unfortunately, he became sick and passed away in June 323 BCE at the age of 32. However, the cause of his death is still a topic of debate, with stories of everything from malaria to poisoning.

A historical painting depicting Alexander the Great leading his troops in the Battle of Issus.

Legacy of Alexander The Great

After Alexander died, his empire was divided among his generals who became known as the Diadochi. Although there was no dominant empire called “Alexandria” following his death, Alexander’s legacy had passed through time and left a profound and long-lasting effect on the western world. The ensuing Hellenistic period enabled Greeks to spread their culture, language and ideal throughout the new territories under the flag of Alexandria.

Alexandria in Egypt, and many more across Asia, all these cities were not only founded by Alexander, they were also established as places for learning and cultural exchange. A commonecement of the Greek and also East cultures : they enabled to advance ideas and science, philosophy, art, literature. Generals of all following eras have studied and admired Alexander’s military tactics and strategies. The way he motivated his men, his coordination of arms, and his willingness to take risks all set an example that continued to work by the principles of a single commander.


The conquests of Alexander the Great remade the ancient world and his reputation remains as powerful as ever. Even his never-realized ideal of a united empire could be considered as the base for centuries of cultural and intellectual exchanges that spurred civilizations for centuries.

The ambitious young man who was crowned king at 20 and who came from a downtrodden and politically corrupt land dedicated to grinding poverty—that young man led his army 12,000 miles to conquer Winged Victory. His legacy lives on in an amazing act of story, befitting one of the greatest conquerors in all of history. If you like reading this article then please consider reading our article about Desa Pinggan.